Trade by barter, sale without standardised weights and measures and the general non-contractual pattern of exchange, all went a long way to foster, enhance and sustain social solidarity. THE PLACE OF VALUES IN AFRICAN CULTURE. Having looked at some of the values that characterise the African culture, it is important to state here that these values are inextricably bound together and are to be comprehended in their totality as African cultural values, CULTURAL CHANGE IN AFRICA AND THE PROBLEMS OF ADJUSTMENT. To claim that there is no society without a culture would, by implication, mean that such a society has continued to survive without any form of social organisation or institutions, norms, beliefs and taboos, and so on; and this kind of assertion is quite untrue. Influences of Christian Religion on African Traditional Religion And Value System Ibenwa, Christopher Ndubuisi Social Sciences Unit, School of General Studies. Uyo: Abbny Publishers. Childlessness was seen as a curse and the failure to give birth to male children was blamed on the woman since it was believed that she determines the sex of the child. In this respect, the synergetic nature of African culture is what made the society very amiable. These practices may be cultural values which have been passed on from one parent to another. The diviners, sorcerers and soothsayers help to streamline human behaviour in the society and people are afraid to commit offences because of the fear of being exposed by the diviners and sorcerers. In Sociology of Education: A Book of Readings. Vol. In discussing African culture and values, we are not presupposing that all African societies have the same explanation(s) for events, the same language, and same mode of dressing and so on. For instance, new yam could not be eaten until the new yam festival has been celebrated. It is the patterned way of life shared by a particular group of people that claim to share a single origin or descent. Just as an object is seen to be of a high value that is treasured, our beliefs about what is right or wrong that are worth being held are equally treasured. 1. It holds a belief in the existence of the human soul and the soul does not die with the body. It is related to hospitality, respect and humility. It is often pictured as slim-looking young ladies who move in staggered steps. Culture is not static. Members of the public freely make donations to aid their upkeep. While previous work has focused upon immigrant adolescents, this study expands the research exploring cultural values to other racial-ethnic groups and to a … Lagos: Obaroh and Ogbinaka Publishers. He is invincible as well. I-1V. Colonialism and African cultural values Benson O. Igboin Department of Religion and African Culture, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. During the period of slavery, African Americans found strength and unity through communal worship. [ Links ], Ezedike, E.0. Key concepts: Aesthetic; African; change; culture; economic; moral; political; religious; social; values. N^|k This singular underlying characteristic is the attempt to portray and capture culture as the entire or total way of life of a particular group of people. The polygamous marriage was more preferable; not because the African is naturally polygamous as some would say, but because it was associated with wealth, power, influence, social status and the strong African desire to be surrounded by many children and relations. Hence, we have festivals, games, sports and dances that are peculiar to different societies. New York: B.W. We shall try to illustrate that African culture and values can be appraised from many dimensions in addition to examining the method of change and the problem of adjustment in culture. This form of dichotomy goes beyond misfortunes and permeates most aspects of the person's life. The worship of different deities on different days goes on to show that the African people hold their religious values in high esteem. For instance, it possesses the concept of a Supreme Being which is invisible and indigenous. African American culture is rich in tradition and American history. That is why even some Western scholars who may be tempted to use their cultural categories in judging other distinctively different people as "primitive", often deny that such people have history, religion and even philosophy; but cannot say that they have no culture. African culture, as Ezedike (2009: 455) writes: ...refers to the sum total of shared attitudinal inclinations and capabilities, art, beliefs, moral codes and practices that characterize Africans. The male except where he is clearly impotent, is hardly ever suspected as the cause of infertility. The aesthetic value of a society influences the artist in his endeavour to produce aesthetic objects that are acceptable to the society in which he lives. Rather, there are underlying similarities shared by many African societies which, when contrasted with other cultures, reveal a wide gap of difference. They comprise of those traditional carnivals that a people see as necessary for their meaningful survival. Prior to the coming of Western colonisation and its subsequent subversion of the African traditional political arrangements, African societies had their council of chiefs, advisers, cult groups, and so on. 2009. It does appear that while material culture can be studied and evaluated under the aesthetic aspect of value theory, non-material culture can equally be studied and evaluated under the ethical aspect of value theory. Both are found in a society that is believed by the Africans to be originally "godmade" because it transcends the people who live in it now, and it is "Man-made" because But today, we see people adopting more and more nuclear family patterns and the individualistic life style of the West. It was wooden in all aspects until recently modified with motorised propeller and tarpaulin. However, some African-Americans despited of this movement, and chose not to rediscover and practice their ancient African culture such as the mother and Maggie, because they were keep their African … In an African society, social values are not separated from religious, political, and moral values [33] as they form the undertone that influences the life choices of the African people. To experience a taste of African culture deep ... part of a close-knit community as well as having extended family on whom to rely helps immigrants like him preserve African beliefs and values. Values here are to be understood as beliefs that are held about what is right and wrong and what is important in life. Let us now look at African culture and values. [ Links ], Bello, S. 1991. The society has a way of dictating the beliefs and practices that are performed either routinely by its members or performed whenever the occasion demands. Following this, Etuk (2002: 91) writes thus: In my part of Africa, the woman bears the brunt of attack for childlessness in marriage. The soothsayer who specialises in it sets a pot of boiling oil, drops a stone into it and asks the suspects to attempt to retrieve the stone. Thus, when a people in their leisure time try to produce or create objects that they consider admirable, their sense of aesthetic value is brought to bear. Beside this, some societies are still practising the system that if a man dies leaving behind a young wife and little children, the widow is required by custom to name someone in the family of the deceased husband for whom she will stay on and fulfil the life-time obligation that she owes her dead husband. E-mail: ohisuccess@yahoo.com. christopher.ibenwa@unn.edu.ng Abstract African society is a homogenous and close one with its unique belief systems. Any ruler who attempted to usurp powers was beheaded by the Ekpo cult. The musical rhythms, drumming, dancing and call-and-response method of preaching come from Africa, as do the beliefs in spirit possession, healing and magic rituals, which are still practiced in some African-American churches. What Antia calls "traits" here can as well be called values; and Etuk (2002: 22) writes that "no group of people can survive without a set of values which holds them together and guarantees their continued existence". Africans captured and brought to America were able to hold on to some of the religious practices common to their native land. It includes everything that makes them distinct from any other group of people for instance, their greeting habits, dressing, social norms and taboos, food, songs and dance patterns, rites of passages from birth, through marriage to death, traditional occupations, religious as well as philosophical beliefs. Children were seen to provide the main labour force. This was based on the true belief that the churning out of a well-behaved child would be to the benefit of not only the immediate parents, but also the society. The synergetic nature of the African society is what made two or more individuals to pool their resources together and uplift each other economically through the system of contributions called osusu. The African society definitely has political institutions with heads of such institutions as respected individuals. From this, it is not hard to see why the first wife would pressurise the husband into taking another wife in order to alleviate her of some workloads and childbearing. African traditional religion, wherever it is practised, has some defining characteristics. [ Links ], Fafunwa, A.B. Ikot Ekpene: Iwoh Publishers. In African terms, humanity isnot just an anthropological term; it is also a moral term when it comesto considering the relations between members of the human species. Another process which can bring profound change in the culture of African people is the process of cultural diffusion (the spread of culture traits from one society into another through cultural contact). African American health care beliefs – American Adoption. These activities are carried out by the society because they are seen to be necessary. As people differ in their conception of reality, then the values of one individual may be different from those of another. Most contemporary Africans find it difficult to adjust between their primitive beliefs in certain aspects of their culture and the supposedly modern mode of accepted behaviour. This is usually done before marriage and after child birth. This is actually where the problem of adjustment to externally induced change has arisen. In fact, there are as many definitions of culture as there are scholars who are interested in the phenomenon. The Western model of beauty is not like this. [ Links ], Umoh, J.0. A fuller study of values rightly belongs to the discipline of philosophy. The proverbs warn the African against evil conduct and, according to Mbiti (1977: 8), are "therefore a major source of African wisdom and a valuable part of African heritage". The concern with values, whether moral or aesthetic, occupies a very wide area in the discipline of philosophy. Hopefully if we can understand a bit of African cultural values when we travel to Africa, we can make a positive impression; showing respect that will leave lasting memories! Most appliances and utensils used then were made of wood, as metal was not a commonly known cultural element of the people. African culture, therefore, refers to the whole lot of African heritage. Just as ethics and aesthetics are twin sisters that form or constitute value theory, the non-material and material dimensions of a culture together constitute two related aspects that give a people their unique identity, hence the relationship that exists between ethics and aesthetics. Therefore, conflicts between core beliefs and values of an individual may exist at a personal level yet, at the same time, conflict with prevailing public perceptions. 1994. Discovery, unlike invention, does not involve recombination of traits but the sharing of knowledge of an existing but yet unknown thing. 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